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Papers

    Papers
  • IQPC Mainz 2017 | Mainz, Germany 2017
    Thermal Simulation of Battery Packs -Drive Cycles and Virtual Operating Strategy Development
    Joshua Poehl / Christian Rathberger, Magna Powertrain

  • IQPC_Thermal_Simulation_of_Battery_Packs_-_Drive_Cycles.pdf 3 MB,
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  • VTMS 2017 | London, UK 2017
    Smart Cooling - Reducing Auxiliaries Energy Consumption
    Christoph Stroh / Christian Rathberger, Magna Powertrain

  • 2017_VTMS_SmartCooling_0515_ECS.pdf 2 MB,
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  • CTI Munich 2017 | Munich, Germany 2017
    Thermal Management Simulation for Concept Development –Designing the MAGNA E1 Demonstrator
    Christian Rathberger, Magna Powertrain

  • 2017_CTI-Munich-Thermomanagement-Simulation-E1_CRAT.pdf 3 MB,
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  • SAE San Diego 2017 | San Diego, USA 2017
    How Concept Design can Benefit from Thermal Management Simulation
    Christian Rathberger, Magna Powertrain

  • Thursday_12_PM_-_Christian_Rathberger__Magna.pdf 2 MB,
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  • CTI-Conference | Stuttgart, Germany 2016
    Battery Thermal Management
    Christian Rathberger, Magna Powertrain

  • 2016_Pres-CTI-Stuttgart_0530_Rathberger_final.pdf 3 MB,
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  • 5. Tagung Wärmemanagement | Haus der Technik, Berlin 2016
    Thermodynamischer Vergleich zwischen einer Hochdruck- und einer Niederdruck-Abgasrückführung
    K. Tüber, W. Ambros, Modine Europe GmbH
  • As world-wide exhaust legislation for diesel powered vehicles becomes more and more rigorous, extensive measures inside and outside the engine are necessary. This includes a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which makes possible substantial reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions. Thereby, the EGR process can be implemented in a conventional high pressure EGR loop or in a low pressure EGR loop. In the latter case, part of the exhaust gas is extracted after the turbine and the diesel particulate filter to be recirculated and mixed with fresh air before the compressor. The present contribution describes the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of these two EGR systems and supplies a simulation model for a vehicle, which was generated using KULI®, a one-dimensional simulation software package. This model permits the computation of the charge air inlet temperature to the engine and the thermodynamic effects on the involved heat exchangers (EGR cooler, Charge air cooler and Radiator). It shows that in case of unchanged components a substantial thermal advantage for the low pressure EGR loop can result. For the boundary conditions of the selected basis case the engine intake air temperature could be reduced around 5.1K without penalizing the coolant side. An additional parametric study examines the influence of fresh air mass flow, air compression ratio, exhaust gas temperature, EGR rate and coolant rate in the EGR cooler.


    K02.pdf 583 KB,
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  • SAE Thermal Management Systems Symposium - TMSS | Troy, USA 2015 2015
    Development of Advanced Cooling Concepts for Hybrid Commercial Trucks with the Help of 1D and 3D Simulation
    Christoph Stroh, Petr Kamenský, Jörg Reiter - MAGNA, Engineering Center Steyr, Austria
  • The engine warm-up after a cold start depends not only on the engine, the driving cycle and on the vehicle itself, but also on the behavior of systems like cooling circuit and power train. The individual systems stand in interaction both with the engine as well as with the other systems. This requires for the simulation of the thermal management system that all relevant subsystems are simulated simultaneously and that the interaction between the individual systems is being considered in a correct way. Therefore, a generic simulation platform was developed. The main advantage of the platform is in being able to couple the simulation models without the need of special interfaces between the individual programs. Based on an example, the modeling of the individual subsystems of the vehicle is shown. For the verification of the single subsystems experimental measurements on a vehicle dynamometer have been performed. The comprehensive vehicle model is verified with the measurement data of a ‘real-world’ driving cycle. Key parameters such as coolant temperature, engine temperature, and cabin temperature are compared therefore. Based on an example, the modeling of the individual subsystems of the vehicle is shown. For the verification of the single subsystems experimental measurements on a vehicle dynamometer have been performed. The comprehensive vehicle model is verified with the measurement data of a ‘real-world’ driving cycle. Key parameters such as coolant temperature, engine temperature, and cabin temperature are compared therefore.


    2015_TMSS_Development_of_Advanced_Cooling_Concepts.pdf 4 MB,
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  • VTMS 12 Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition | East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham 2015
    Improving electric vehicle energy efficiency with co - simulation of cooling system, HVAC system and electric drivetrain
    D Dvorak, Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria; C Rathberger, A Lichtenberger, MAGNA, Engineering Centre Steyr, Austria
  • The engine warm-up after a cold start depends not only on the engine, the driving cycle and on the vehicle itself, but also on the behavior of systems like cooling circuit and power train. The individual systems stand in interaction both with the engine as well as with the other systems. This requires for the simulation of the thermal management system that all relevant subsystems are simulated simultaneously and that the interaction between the individual systems is being considered in a correct way. Therefore, a generic simulation platform was developed. The main advantage of the platform is in being able to couple the simulation models without the need of special interfaces between the individual programs. Based on an example, the modeling of the individual subsystems of the vehicle is shown. For the verification of the single subsystems experimental measurements on a vehicle dynamometer have been performed. The comprehensive vehicle model is verified with the measurement data of a ‘real-world’ driving cycle. Key parameters such as coolant temperature, engine temperature, and cabin temperature are compared therefore. Based on an example, the modeling of the individual subsystems of the vehicle is shown. For the verification of the single subsystems experimental measurements on a vehicle dynamometer have been performed. The comprehensive vehicle model is verified with the measurement data of a ‘real-world’ driving cycle. Key parameters such as coolant temperature, engine temperature, and cabin temperature are compared therefore.


    2015_VTMS_Energy-Efficient-EV-TMM_AIT-ECS_final-paper.pdf 3 MB,
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  • SAE World Congress | Detroit 2015
    Robust Cooling with Coupled 1D, 3D Thermal Simulation Models
    Puntigam u. Hörmann(vif), Moshammer (MSF), Jimenz(EASi), Hager
  • Shortening of development times in the automotive industry with simultaneous rise of complexity, efficiency and product variety require more effective, faster and “robust” simulation methods. In this research we focus on computation of cooling packages for vehicles in the concept phase. We extended conventional methods, which proceed from purely deterministic results, by a stochastic computation and CFD calculation, in order to be able to consider the effects of uncertain estimates of boundary conditions and/or the fluctuations, occurring in measurements. The goal is a robust simulation method assisting the cooling package design engineers in the very early concept and development phase, respectively.


    SAE_2005_Robust_Cooling_with_Coupled_Thermal_Simulation_Models.pdf 14 MB,
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  • HdT Tagung Wärmemanagement | Potsdam, Germany 2014
    Effizienzsteigerung von Wärmepumpen mithilfe von Simulation
    P. Kamensky - MAGNA POWERTRAIN - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & CoKG (ECS), St. Valentin, Austria

  • 2014_HdT_Tagung_Waermemanagement_Potsdam_Effizienzsteigerung_von_Waermepumpen_mithilfe_von_Simulation_de.pdf 964 KB,
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  • Symposium E-Mobility | Vienna, Austria 2014
    Thermal Management in Electrics Vehicles
    C. Rathberger - MAGNA - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & CoKG (ECS), St. Valentin, Austria

  • 2014_Symposium-E-Mobility-Vienna_0522_CRAT.pdf 3 MB,
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  • Workshop at IQPC Conference | Detroit, USA 2014
    Energy efficient cooling systems for electric vehicles
    A. Türtscher, KULI Distributor USA AT engineering LLC, Golden

  • 2014_Workshop-IQPC-Energy-efficient-cooling-systems-for-electric-vehicles_0303_CRAT.pdf 9 MB,
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  • VTMS 11 | Coventry, United Kingdom 2013
    Thermal Assessments of Virtual Product Applications in the Pre-Development Stage
    C. GAMSJÄGER, C. HÖFER, W. ÖLLER - MAGNA POWERTRAIN - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & CoKG (ECS), St. Valentin, Austria
  • Heat management of a vehicle and especially the heat-up characteristic of the combustion engine can strongly influence fuel consumption.
    In the development process of new vehicle parts, numerical simulation is indispensable to uncover the effects on the vehicle heat-up in an early stage. Thus, a framework for the virtual product development of innovative thermal management components has been developed.
    In the beginning, comprehensive thermal measurements of a vehicle on a roller test bench are performed. On this basis a 1D simulation of the various fluid circuits and components is built up. A thermal engine model is included as well as all necessary circuits for coolant, engine oil, transmission oil, cooling air and charge air. In this framework different product concepts and operating strategies can be compared and the impact on fuel consumption can be revealed for various driving cycles.
    The paper shows the working process for a turbo-charged passenger car with special attention to the NEDC and FTP72/75 emission cycles.


    20130113-VTMS11-Thermal-assessments-of-virtual-product.pdf 2 MB,
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  • 21st Aachen Colloquium Automobile and Engine Technology 2012 | Aachen, Germany 2012
    Intelligent Heat Management – A Chance for further Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption
    C. Gamsjäger, J. Hager, Dr. V. Kordesch, Dr. W. Öller
  • Intelligent heat management of conventional vehicle propulsion systems can lead to further reduction of fuel consumption. Especially, the application of variable pumps, actuators and sensors establishes new possibilities. Simulation can help to evaluate different thermal management measures. Control strategies can be developed and the influence on the engine heat-up can be analyzed.

    In a first step, comprehensive thermal measurements on a test vehicle are performed and serve as groundwork for fluid-thermal simulations of the operating fluid circuits and the included components.

    Based on this 1D fluid-thermal simulation model, solutions for a demand-controlled coolant flow, directed use of heat sources and the intelligent reduction of thermal masses in the warm-up phase are discussed and virtually tested. With emphasis on the NEDC and FTP driving cycles, the impact on fuel consumption reduction is calculated.


    2012_Intelligent_Heatmanagement_Aachen.pdf 2 MB,
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  • HdT, Tagung Wärmemanagement | Haus der Technik / Berlin, Germany 2012
    Thermalsimulation eines Hybrid-LKW-Kühlsystems
    Christoph Stroh, Stefan Schnörch, Christian Rathberger - ECS
  • In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating.

    In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commerical 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered.

    The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well.

    For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials.

    This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort.


    2012_HdT_WMM_Paper_Stroh_Schnoerch.pdf 1 MB,
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  • IQPC International Conference, Thermal Management for EV/HEV | Darmstadt 2011
    Thermoelectric Potentials for Waste Heat Recovery in a HEV
    Josef Hager, Florian Faistauer, Joachim Hanner

  • 2011_IQPC_TE_HEV_0628_HAG.pdf 5 MB,
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  • VTMS 10 | Gaydon, Großbritannien 2011
    Combination of a 1D Tool and CFD results for a cool down Simulation
    M. Kovac, J. Hager, J. Hanner, G. Breuer, and Ch. Stroh MAGNA POWERTRAIN, Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG, St. Valentin, Austria
  • This paper presents a method for a cool down simulation of passenger compartments. Main targets were the reduction of modelling effort, limited CPU-time consumption, high accuracy, allowing the prediction of temperature diffusion in the cabin for parameter studies for transient analysis. The process is based on a 1D model, while 3D effects like diffusion fields and mass flow fields are implemented from CFD data. For a given flow field, the transport of heat and humidity are computed. The simulation model contains a specifically developed multi zone cabin model, which can deal e.g. with multiple inlets into the cabin, solar radiation, and recirculation for pre-defined cabin types. Different materials for the cabin walls, like doors, floor, roof and windows are considered by a multi-layer model. To describe the transient cool down behaviour of the HVAC air-path, the simulation was done with a full AC circuit, consisting of evaporator, condenser, TXV and compressor. The transient thermal behaviour of walls and internal masses is considered. The AC system is combined with a 1D model of the engine cooling package. The simulation of the AC circuit is based on the transient behaviour of the cabin. The presented paper covers the definition and the description of the workflow as well as the verification with test data.


    VTMS2011_Combination_of_a_1D_Tool_and_CFD_Results_for_a_Cool_Down_Simulation.pdf 424 KB,
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  • Battery Technology Expo | San Jose 2010
    Battery Thermal Simulation and Energy Management of Hybrid Commercial Vehicles
    Martin Ackerl, Gregor Breuer, Gerald Pichler, Albert Tuertscher

  • 05_BatteryTechnologyExpo_2010_BatteryThermalSimulationAndEnergy_BRG.pdf 2 MB,
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  • JSAE | Pacifico, Yokohama, Japan 2010
    Optimizing Energy Management of Modern Vehicles Considering Heat Flows Including Exhaust Heat Recovery
    Terue Goto, Josef Hager, Stefan Robausch
  • Energy management of vehicles is an important issue to meet the targets of CO2-emission regulations of vehicles. The variety of recently introduced vehicle concepts including HEVs and EVs imply a remarkable optimisation potential. Therefore a simulation method was developed which allows the consideration of multiple vehicle topologies with respect to driving performance, vehicle dynamics and energy management. Different user-related and legal-based driving cycles for both passenger cars and commercial trucks were analysed to verify energy flows and CO2 emissions. The energy saving potential of waste heat recovery using thermoelectric generators is presented as an example application.


    03_JSAE-2010_OptimizingEnergyManagement_HAG.pdf 485 KB,
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  • DKV-Tagung | Magdeburg 2010
    Batterieklimatisierung und Energiemanagement von hybriden Nutzfahrzeugen
    Gregor Breuer, Gerald Pichler, Gerald Steinwender, Martin Ackerl

  • 04_DKV_2010_BatterieklimatisierungUndEnergiemanagementVonHybridenNutzfahzeugen_BRG.pdf 821 KB,
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  • HdT-Tagung WMM | Berlin, Deutschland 2010
    Simulation des thermischen Verhaltens für Hybridfahrzeuge sowie Energienutzung aus dem Abgas mittels TEG
    Steinwender, Hager, Prenninger, Ackerl
  • The reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption is still the main requirement for the development of new vehicle drive trains. Several technically interesting solutions are intensively developed or will have their start of production soon. Some of them are already well known, but due to cost reasons they are not in production until now. One example is thermal management technique, which uses energy losses to heat up the engine faster to reduce the friction torque and therefore the fuel consumption. Another approach is the electrification, which covers the use of electrically driven auxiliaries, hybrid and electric vehicles. Simulation got a completely new significance for the successful and fast development. On the one hand it is useful and even necessary to assess and select the various numbers of possible solutions with complex interactions virtually. On the other hand the influence of particular solutions to the fuel consumption is within the measurement accuracy, which means that simulation is the only way of assessment.
    This paper describes the simulation of the thermal behavior of hybrid vehicles as well as the energy recuperation from exhaust gas by means of thermo electrical generator for selected applications under the aspect of CO2 reduction. For the virtual consideration the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI with integrated driving simulation module for the evaluation of driving cycles was used.


    02_HdT_WMM_des_KFZ_2010.pdf 3 MB,
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  • GZV | Braunschweig 2010
    Energy Management and Thermal Simulation of Hybrid Commercial Vehicles
    Hager, Prenninger, Winter
  • There is high potential in the hybrid drive technology for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The use and requirements of a hybrid drive for commercial vehicles differ in many ways from the one of hybrid passenger cars. The success of hybrid solutions for commercial vehicles relies primarily on significant fuel savings, whereas energy storage and energy management play an important role.
    This paper shows a simulation model which has been used for the dimensioning and detailed simulations of hybrid drive trains. To simulate the thermal effect, a co-simulation environment between longitudinal dynamics and thermal management software has been applied. The longitudinal dynamics software calculates the propulsion power which determines the thermal load of the components. Particular attention has been directed to electrical and thermal behavior of the high-traction battery. The coupling of longitudinal and
    thermal simulation enables a realistic calculation of the energy use, since the effects such as the change of efficiency by temperature and load effect can be considered. This behavior also plays an important role in the development and tuning of the vehicles’ components and operating strategy.
    Finally this application shows simulated data of a hybrid commercial vehicle with a lithiumion battery. For these simulations standardized driving cycles (HUDDS, JE05, …) and also cycles with a high proportion of urban driving have been simulated. These simulations show a meaningful influence on the temperature of the components, especially the battery.
    For a higher hybrid market share in the future, the development of electrical components, especially energy storage systems with high power and energy densities and the reduction of system cost and weight will be essential.


    01_Thermal_Simulation_Hager_2010.pdf 1 MB,
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  • 3. European Workshop | Turin 2009
    Multi-Air-Zone Cabin Model for HVAC Development
    Hager J., Breuer, Steinwender

  • 01_ATA_Turin_Multi-Air-Zone_Hager_2009.pdf 3 MB,
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  • HDT-Tagung | 2009
    Thermische Rekuperation im Kraftfahrzeug
    Hager, Eglseer, Höfer

  • 02_Hdt_Rekuperation_Hager_2009.pdf 49 KB,
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  • 6. Wärmetagung | Haus der Technik, Berlin 2008
    Unterstützung der Kühlsystemauslegung von Hybridfahrzeugen durch Simulation
    Günter Lang, Filip Kitanoski, The Virtual Vehicle - Competence Center, Graz, Christian Kussmann, Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH & Co KG, Graz
  • This paper describes how the hybridization of conventional vehicles affects the cooling system layout. Combustion engines, electric drives, power electronics and batteries run at different temperature levels, thus, the heat loss should dissipate to individual cooling circuits. To ensure safe and reliable operation a thorough design of the cooling system is required. In the second part of the paper, the system layout for a SUV is shown. The hybrid vehicle presented here uses the power from an internal combustion engine and two electric drives. It features three different cooling circuits. The layout process is supported by a sophisticated simulation technique: by means of co-simulation of the mechanical, electrical and thermal systems, the system behaviour has been analyzed under various ambient conditions and vehicle loads. The results of these simulations will be the basis for the final system layout and thermal management strategy of the vehicle. 


    k05.pdf 1 MB,
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